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Participle Formation and Translation in Greek

Participles are verbal adjectives. They are common in Greek, and extremely versatile. Greek participles can contain a great deal more meaning than they might in their literal English translation. Below we explain the formation of the participles for the tenses and voices in which they may be formed. Like other nouns, they agree in gender, number, and case with the word that they modify. They have the additional qualities of tense and voice to show verbal meaning, and they can take direct and indirect objects. Following the presenation of the formation participles, we will discuss how they can be translated.

Present Active

Formation    

The present active participle is formed in the masculine and neuter by adding -nt- to the present stem and adding second declension adjectival endings. The feminine present active participle is formed by adding -ous- to the present active stem and declining as a first declension word.

e.g. 'filew '''I love'''

Case

Masculine/Neuter Singular

Masculine/Neuter Plural

Feminine Singular

Feminine Plural

Nominative

Φιλων

φιλοντοι

φιλουσα

φιλουσαι

Genitive

Φιλοντου

φιλοντων

φιλουσης

φιλουσων

Dative

Φιλοντι

φιλουσι(ν)

φιλουση

φιλουσαις

Accusative

Φιλοντον

Φιλοντους

φιλουσην

φιλουσας

Take special note of the masculine and neuter dative plural participle. It is formed the same way as the others, but the --ντ--- is eliminated due to compensatory lengthening.

Present Mediopassive

The present mediopassive participle is formed by adding μεν—to the present active stem and declines using 1st and 2nd declension endings.

e.g. 'filew '''I love'''

Case

Masculine/Neuter Singular

Masculine/Neuter Plural

Feminine Singular

Feminine Plural

Nominative

Φιλομενος

φιλομενοι

φιλομενη

Φιλουσαι

Genitive

φιλομενου

φιλομενων

φιλομεης

Φιλουσων

Dative

φιλομεν

φιλομενοις

φιλομεν

Φιλουσαις

Accusative

Φιλομενον

φιλομενους

φιλουσην

Φιλουσας

Future Active'

The future active participle is formed by adding -οnt- to the future active stem in the masculine, and -ous- in the feminine. It declines as a third declension adjective in the masculine and neuter, and as a first declension adjective in the feminine.

e.g. 'filew '''I love'''

Case

Masculine/Neuter Singular

Masculine/Neuter Plural

Feminine Singular

Feminine Plural

Nominative

Φιλεσων

Φιλεσοντες

Φιλεσοθσα

φιλεσουσαι

Genitive

Φιλεσοντος

Φιλεςοωτων

Φιλεσουσης

φιλεσουσων

Dative

Φιλεσοντι

φιλεσουσι(ν)

Φιλεσουση

φιλεσουσαις

Accusative

Φιλεσοντα

Φιλεσοντας

φιλεσουσαν

φιλεσουσας

Future Middle

The future middle participle is formed by adding --ομεν-- to the future active stem and it declines using 1st and 2nd declension adjectival endings.

e.g. 'filew '''I love'''

Case

Masculine/Neuter Singular

Masculine/Neuter Plural

Feminine Singular

Feminine Plural

Nominative

Φιλεσομενος

Φιλεσομενοι

Φιλεσομενη

φιλεσομεναι

Genitive

Φιλεσομενου

Φιλεσομενων

Φιλεσομενης

φιλεσομενων

Dative

Φιλεσομεν

Φιλεσομενοις

Φιλεσομενη

φιλεσομεναις

Accusative

Φιλεσομενον

Φιλεσομενους

Φιλεσομενην

φιλεσομενας

Future Passive

The future passive participle is formed by adding an –ομεν-- infix to the future passive stem and declines using 1st and 2nd declension adjectival endings.

Case

Masculine/Neuter Singular

Masculine/Neuter Plural

Feminine Singular

Feminine Plural

Nominative

Φιλεθησομενος

Φιλεθησομενοι

Φιλεθησομενη

φιλεθησομεναι

Genitive

Φιλεθησομενου

Φιλεθησομενων

Φιλεθησομενης

φιλεθησομενων

Dative

Φιλεθησομενῳ

Φιλεθησομενοις

Φιλεθησομενη

φιλεθησομεναις

Accusative

Φιλεθησομενον

Φιλεθησομενους

Φιλεθησομενην

φιλεθησομενας

Aorist Active

The aorist active participle is formed in the masculine and neuter by adding –ντ/ασ—to the aorist active stem and declines using 3rd declension endings. The feminine aorist active participle is formed by adding – ασ—to the aorist active stem an declining with 1st decension endings.

Case

Masculine/Neuter Singular

Masculine/Neuter Plural

Feminine Singular

Feminine Plural

Nominative

Φιλεσας

Φιλεσαντες

Φιλεασα

φιλεσασαι

Genitive

Φιλεσαντος

Φιλεσαντων

Φιλεσασης

φιλεσασων

Dative

Φιλεσαντι

Φιλεσαντοις

Φιλεσασνη

φιλεσασαις

Accusative

Φιλεσαντα

Φιλεσαντασ

Φιλεσασην

φιλεσασας

Aorist Middle

The aorist middle participle is formed by adding –αμεν—to the aorist active stem and declining with 1st and 2nd declension endings.

Case

Masculine/Neuter Singular

Masculine/Neuter Plural

Feminine Singular

Feminine Plural

Nominative

Φιλεσαμενος

Φιλεσαμενοι

Φιλεσαμενη

φιλεσαμεναι

Genitive

Φιλεσαμενου

Φιλεσαμενων

Φιλεσαμενης

Φιλεσαμενων

Dative

Φιλεσαμενῳ

Φιλεσαμενοις

Φιλεσαμενη

φιλεσαμεναις

Accusative

Φιλεσαμενον

Φιλεσαμενους

Φιλεσαμενην

φιλεσαμενας

Aorist Passive          

The aorist passive participle is formed in the masculine and neuter by adding –εις/εντ—to the aorist passive stem and declines with 3rd declension endings. The feminine is formed by adding   --εισ—to the aorist passive stem and declines with 1st declension endings.

Case

Masculine/Neuter Singular

Masculine/Neuter Plural

Feminine Singular

Feminine Plural

Nominative

Φιλεθεις

Φιλεθεντες

Φιλεθεισα

Φιλεθεισαι

Genitive

Φιλεθεντος

Φιλεθεντςν

Φιλεθεισης

Φιλεθεισων

Dative

Φιλεθεντι

Φιλεθεισι

Φιλεθειση

Φιλεθεισαις

Accusative

Φιλεθεντα

Φιλεθεντας

Φιλεθεισαν

Φιλεθεισας

Translation

Participles can be translated in several ways, following the pattern set up by the word --φιλουσα --- above.



If it is in attributive position (between the article and the noun it modifies) it may be translated as “the loving woman” or “the woman who loves.” Depending on the context, it may also be translated as a subordinate clause—whether temporal, conditional, causal, purpose, or concessive.

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